Saturday, April 20, 2019

After Graduation MBA or MCA which is best

MBA and MCA are the only such degrees which you can make a good career after doing. There are many similarities between these two, so both are different from each other in many ways. Before we do not tinkle with each other, we need to know briefly about both of them. So let's know what these two courses are.
What is MBA?

MBA i.e. Master of Business Administration is a Master's degree program which is done in case field such as Human Resources, Marketing, Banking, Information Technology etc. It is of 2 years in which there are a total of 4 semesters, for admission to MBA from reputed colleges of the country, you get admission through various entrance entrance examinations conducted by various institutes, then you have a right to entry directly.

What is MCA?

MCA i.e. Master of Computer Application. This is a course that can be done after graduation. The duration of this course is 3 years and there are a total of 6 semesters. During this course, you get to read every information related to computer engineering which is usually taught by students in BE. An MCA degree is equivalent to BE Computer Science or IT.

In order to take admission in the MCA like MBA, you also have to take the entrance test through which you get the college. If you do an MCA from a reputable college / university, you get a lot of benefit as if you can get a direct placement. You can choose one of the options available through specialization in the last year of the MCA, such as web development, software designing, networking etc.

What are the differences between MBA and MCA?

After reading the above 2 paragraphs, you have already learned about both courses, now we talk about what the difference between the two courses is.



• MBA is a 2 year course.
• MBA can be done after any
After doing MBA, jobs can be found in
various positions such as Manager,
Assistant etc. in any company.
• If discussing the course fees, it is not
appropriate to say anything because
there are many institutions in the
country where MBA is done, whose fees
can be 10 thousand rupees per semester, even 1 lakh anywhere.
• After the MBA, your starting salary can start from 1.8K, but it depends on which college or university you have done the related course.

• MCA is a 3 year course.
• MCA can also be done after any graduation, but it is mandatory to have Physics, Chemistry, Math in 12th.
• After the MCA, any IT company can get job of software developer, web developer, graphics designer, computer / web programmer.
• MCA fees like MBA are also not fixed. However, due to this 3-year program, its fees may be slightly higher than that of MBA.
• If you get jobs by college placement after MCA, you get a good package but if you do not get job during the placement you may have to struggle a bit. In this, your initial salary can start from 1.5K, which greatly increases on the basis of experience of some time.

Who should do MBA?

MBAs are courses related to business and management that can be done by people who are interested in topics like business, marketing, planning etc. While doing this course, you can start your own business by learning the business tricks and proportional management, or earn money by working on a good post.

Who should do MCA?

Because MCA is a course related to computer, software, engineering, etc., people who are interested in these subjects or who want to make their career in IT field. As mentioned above, the MCA degree is equivalent to BE, which means that for some reason the engineering could not get done through the MCA, they can get good salaries by getting the engineer equivalent work.

Top 10 MBA Streams for Career

Master of Business Management, that MBA is a 2 year course in which students are made expert in all subjects in the management, with the specialization of one subject. In the first year of MBA, the introduction of students is made from all the aspects related to management related. After that, information regarding Specialization subject is provided to the student.
In the second year of the MBA, Student has to choose one of its preferred specialization subjects. It does not apply to those studios who have taken admission in the Sectoral MBA . Choosing a specialization Course for a student is a difficult process. Before choosing a specialization, students should take special care of their career goals and professional development.
Here we are telling you about the top 10 streams of MBA:

(1)  Finance: MBA These Finance is the oldest Subject of MBA Specification. During this course, you are preparing for the subjects like casting, budgeting, intermediate finance and capital management. After studying these subjects, you become expert in financial management, so that you can get a job in the finance department of any organization. If you want to earn an MBA in finance then you should be graduate in any stream.

(2)   Marketing: MBA marketing is dynamic and quite competitive. In MBA marketing, students understand the consumer behavior and habits, market, advertising and other specifications related to this field. In this field, people should have a career, whose communication skills are excellent, the art of using the existing resources correctly and the passion of staying in marketing.

(3)  Human Resource MBA (HR): The MBA in HR is for those students who want to make a career in Human Resource and Strategy. An MBA in HR is a very good career option for students who have good communication skills, assessment skills, attractive personalities and psychiatrists. An MBA can be done in any stream of Graduate HR.

(4)  International Business: Master of International Business is given information in depth in International Marketing such as International Marketing and Finance. This degree of MBA is focused on multinational co-operation. Admission in this course must be graduate from any stream.

(5)  Operations: MBA in Operations helps in production management or shop floor management. Through this course, you learn the qualities of maintaining vendor and inter-departmental relationships in addition to maintaining process flow. Mostly engineering backgrounds of students can do Operations MBA because of the knowledge of product development, designing and process optimization, it is not difficult for them to get into this field. However candidates of any stream can apply for this course.

(6)  Information Technology (IT): In IT, MBA has been designed to prepare professionals who can effectively manage planning, designing, selecting, implementing and administration related work to information and communication technologies. IT graduates play an important role in the business team. Especially in Designing and Implementation of Software Solutions. However candidates of any stream can apply for this course.

(7)  Supply Chain Management: Under this course, information about inventory management, warehousing and clients or any kind of material sought by any company is given. Graduates can do MBA in any stream in Supply Chain Management.

(8)  Rural Management: MBA in Rural Management is a unique program designed to meet the growing demand of Skilled Managers in the field of Rural Business Marketing. There is a lot of development potential in the rural market and corporate houses realize this very well. Candidates of any stream can apply for this course.

(9)  Agri Business Management: In this course, students learn the tricks to manage the companies that work to deliver agriculture products until consignation. Keeping in mind the special needs of agribusiness segments, students  should have a good understanding of management, marketing and finance. Candidates of any stream can apply for this course.

(10)  Health Care Management: Although the MBA in Healthcare covers core business skills and practice, it also focuses on special issues from which a hospital administrator, medical practitioner manager, insurance-company executive or similar the manager who plays a second role may have to be two or four. Any Graduate can do an MBA in Healthy Care Management.

Complete Information about MBA And How It Do (For Hindi Students Also)

If you have completed graduation and want to read further, you must know about MBA. Today, in our post, we will get some important information related to MBA such as MBA, MBA fees, MBA employment opportunities, and so on.

What is MBA?
MBA i.e. Master of Business Administration, which is a 2-year-old prestigious postgraduate degree. During MBA, you get information about business management; here you learn how to make a business successful. Ways to Business you can get many important information related to business in MBA.
MBA is in many areas such as banking, finance, marketing, retail, foreign, culture etc. You can do MBA in whatever area you are interested in. Before doing MBA, you have to go through the entrance examinations which are many types of information which we will get further.

Who can do MBA?
Many people have the impression that MBAs are for business people or it can only be done by those people who have their own business, but this is not the case. MBA is a business which is connected to a courier but no one can do it. If you do not have any Family Business then you can get an MBA from a major company and get a job at a bigger position.

MBA Educational Qualification and Admission Test
If you want to do MBA, you must graduate with the minimum 50% marks. Apart from this, you need to be successful in the entrance exams to get admission in MBA. In our country, CAT is a prestigious entrance test that allows you to get admission in MBA College. In addition CMAT, XAT, MAT, GMAT, NMAT Apart from this, admissions can also be found in MBA through some other entrance examinations.
In addition to the above conditions for admission to MBA in some colleges, work experience is also sought in a company of 1 or 2 years.
MBA after 12th: Yes you can do MBA directly after XII, which is a 5-year course with BBA + MBA. But this facility is in a few universities.

Different areas of MBA
In our country you can do MBA in many streams, some of which are major areas below.
Human Resource (HR): Human resources, here you will learn about the management of employees, recruitment of staff, work, salary, leave etc. in companies.
• Banking: If you want to work in a good post in a bank, then this can be a great option for you.
• Finance: Like the banking sector, the market of finance is quite large in the last few years. In this case, doing MBA in this field can also be proved right.
• Information Technology (IT): In this field, you will read about IT Jagad.
• Marketing: There are huge potential jobs in this area, if you have the ability to impress someone, then you should choose this area.

Where do MBAs?
The Indian Institute of Management is located in Indore, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kolkata and Lucknow in the country, which is best for MBA but it is not easy to get admission here, you will have to work very hard.
Apart from IIM there are many other universities where you can do MBA. Write your city name in the comment we will try our best to provide you information about your nearest MBA college.

Answer some questions related to MBA
What are MBA fees?
MBA fees start at around 1 lakh and can be up to 10-12 lakhs depending on which college you are entering.

How long does MBA be?
If you do full-time MBA then there are a total of 4 semesters that are one in 6 months.

How much salary do you get after doing MBA?
It depends on your work. In the beginning, salaries of 3 to 4 lakh rupees per year can be made if you are posted in a good company.

Does MBA happen through Hindi?

Many Hindi medium students have the question that can MBA be done in Hindi? But I would like to tell you guys MBA is a very big degree which is not possible in Hindi, if MBA is done through Hindi medium then it does not have much importance. That's why I would like to advise you to improve your English first and then think about doing MBA.

How do I get a career in part time MBA?

Sometimes this question arises in front of all the students who choose to pursue a career or profession and go ahead in life. In this way MBA can be a good option for you. MBA's craze has always been the center of attraction for young people in terms of career creation. There are three main options for MBA. Regular course,  Part Time MBA and Correspondence course.

In simple words, Master Business Administration (MBA) is a skill-developing program for running any business. MBA degree is internationally recognized

Eligibility for admission in Master Business Administration (MBA)
Graduation must be done with at least 50 percent marks in subjects of Arts, Commerce or Science. Minimum 45 percent marks for SC / ST / PWD candidates
Age limit is not fixed. Student of any age can do MBA

MBA Programs in India
Name of some programs run under Master Business Administration (MBA)
Full time program - 2 year
Part Time MBA (3year) (Part time program - 3 year
Executive MBA Program
Distance Learning / Correspondence MBA (Distance Learning / Correspondance MBA)

How to get admission in Top MBA colleges in India
To be successful in the entrance examination of CAT, MAT, JMAT, XAT, IBSAT, FMS, NNAT, SNAP, etc to do MBA from a good institution.
By pursuing management with a good institute, you increase the prospect of a great job and good salary. One of the same programs run under Master Business Administration (MBA) is a part time MBA program.

Part time MBA in India
Sometimes it happens that you do not get admission in the institute of your choice or you are employed and if you do not have time for regular class then you do not need to be frustrated in it. If you are interested in doing MBA then you can move your step towards the part time MBA and give a new flight to your career.

Eligibility for Master Business Administration (MBA)
Graduation with at least 45 percent marks in Arts, Commerce or Science subjects
2/3/5 years or more experience of executive or administrative work in a prestigious commercial / industrial / government institute
There is also a provision for minimum 45 percent marks on the graduation level for applicants with more than 55 percent marks in postgraduation.

Part Time MBA Entry Process / Selection Procedure
Part time MBA institution admission information is published in major newspapers. You can also get information from the organization's website.
After filling application forms, eligible students are called for a written examination and interview / GD.

Benefits of Part Time MBA
You can do this course along with the job because the classes of this course are usually operated in late evening or weekend.
You get the solutions of business problems only through these classes during your work experience.
 In addition to understanding the methods of modern management for those who adopt employment or self-employment at an early age, such courses are also beneficial in terms of building self confidence.
Due to being about 3 years of part time MBA, you can easily lift heavy burden of course fees.
This program is also good for working professionals who can not afford more time for studies.
If your dream is to make a career in the field of management but for some reason you have been away from studies then what happened? You can complete your dream with part time MBA.

The following is the name of the institute, which has part time MBA in India -
Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Delhi
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata
Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow
Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
Nirma Indian Institute Management, Ahmedabad
A. N. Mishra College of Business Management, Patna

Can got good Job after Part Time MBA?
The question of many people is that can you get a job from Part Time MBA? Friends, there is no guarantee of job after doing MBA, but if you are part time MBA from the government recognized institution and you have a percentile high and you have a valid certified course then you can get a good job You will get

Take care

Nowadays companies of corporate sector look at the degree along with degrees - such as aptitude, communication skills, soft skills, leadership, etc. in students. Therefore it is also necessary to have these skills along with the degree. MBA degree helps you to reach career highs.

How to plan MBA from Abroad

If you are dreaming to go abroad and read the Master in Business Administration, then it is important that you do the full research before taking admission. This one step will prepare the condition and direction of your profession. Start preparing for the admission process starting in January a year ahead. Distribute the parts of your Admission Research within months and complete it in due time so that you do not have to rush in the last minute. From MBA's Research to Admission, we are giving the process as a calendar for your convenience.

Start the first stairway to go abroad and do an MBA
Plan your career
Focus on your career and keep focus on future goals
Find Jobs in Career Fields
Why MBA?
Think about why you want to MBA
Think about how much MBA will suit your personality. Also consider how much it will give you financial satisfaction

Create a profile by realizing the idea
Research goals
Talk to professionals who are in this job
Once again, consider your goal as both long term and short term issues.
Focus on your professional career
Do work on projects related to your goal
Experience the field work, work at the international level
Focus on your promotion
Keep taking stock of your academic preparation.
Plan for GMAT; give 2-3 months time
Give TOEFL Exam
Continue Meditation on Extra Curriculum
Work on your hobbies and interests. Example: You can run an online small business, do some work for charity.
Social work is not necessary though but it brings newness to your bio

Let's start school research now
Choose 5-6 colleges, you can divide them according to your preference: 2 dream colleges, 2 fitt colleges and 2 safety schools
When choosing a college, take note of these things:
What is the academic status of the college, according to culture, whether it suits you or not, fees, education loan, placements, and also the location.
Find schools, choose courses, take experience from older people, then think if you are interstitial or not
Student ambassador, and club leaders, solve problems
You can meet professors about your course
Complete college and course with alumni students
If you have time and money, then you can go to your favorite school once
Create Admissions Calendar
GMAT and send your score to the selected school

List the colleges according to your preference
Prepare right-up for application in school
Highlight the theme and experience it.
Prepare a good professional resume
Tell the people you know about your goal, and ask them for the necessary suggestions.
You can also consult a Preferential Career Counselor for this.
Review all your applications again

Send 5-6 best applications to R1
Start preparing for interview
Decide the deadline for the decision, then plan on R2

Admission in the new year

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Discount Rate, Yield to Maturity, Value of the Share, E/P Ratio

Discount Rate: - It is the rate of return that investors expect from securities of comparable risk.

Bonds or Debentures: - These are debt instruments or securities. In case of abond/debenture the stream of cash flows consists of annual interest payments and repayment of principal. These flows are fixed and known.

The Value of the Bond: - It can be found by capitalising cash flows at a rate of return, which reflects their risk. The market interest rate or yield is used as the discount rate in case of bonds (or debentures). The basic formula for the bond value is as follows:

Yield to Maturity: - A bond’s yield to maturity or internal rate of return can be found by equating the present value of the bond’s cash outflows with its price in the above equation.

Zero-Interest Bonds (called zero-coupon bonds in USA) do not have explicit rate of interest. They are issued for a discounted price; their issue price is much less than the face value. Therefore, they are also called deep-discount bonds.
The basic discounting principles apply in determining the value or yield of these bonds.

Preference shares have a preference over ordinary shareholders with regard to dividends. The preference dividend is specified and known. Similarly, in the case of redeemable preference share the redemption or maturity value is also known. Preference share value can be determined in the same way as the bond value. Here the discount rate will be the rate expected by the preference shareholders given their risk. This risk is more than the risk of bondholders and less than the equity shareholders.

Value of the Share (General) Cash flows of an ordinary (or equity) shareconsist of the stream of dividends and terminal price of the share. Unlike the case of a bond, cash flows of a share are not known. Thus, the risk of holding a share is higher than the risk of a bond. Consequently, equity capitalisation rate will be higher than that of a bond. The general formula for the share valuation is as follows:

As the time horizon, n, becomes very large (say, extends to infinity) the present value of future price approaches zero. Thus the term Pn disappears from the formula, and we can use the following equation to find the value of a share today:

Value of the Share (Zero Growth) If dividends do not grow, then capitalisingearnings can determine the share value. Under no-growth situation, earnings per share (EPS) will be equal to dividends per share (DIV) and the present value is obtained by capitalizing earnings per share:

Value of the Share (Constant Growth) In practice, dividends do grow over years. If we assume dividends to grow at a constant rate, g, then DIV1 = DIV0 (1 + g), DIV2 = DIV1 (1 + g)DIV3 = DIV2 (1 + g)..., and the share price formula can be written as follows:
This formula is useful in calculating the equity capitalisation rate (ke) when the price of the share (P0) is known.
Under the assumption of constant growth, the share value is equal to the capitalized value of earnings plus the value of growth opportunities as shown
Value of Growth Opportunities (VgGiven a firm’s EPS, ROE, the equity capitalisation rate, retention ratio and constant growth, the growth opportunities can be valued as follows:
E/P Ratio and Ke Relationship between the earnings-price ratio and capitalisation rate as follows:
The E/P ratio will equal the capitalisation rate only when growth opportunities are zero, otherwise it will either overestimate or underestimate the capitalisation rate.

Time Value For Money, Risk Premimum, Interest Rate, Capital Recovery

Time Value for Money : - Individual investors generally prefer possession of a given amount of cash now, rather than the same amount at some future time. This time preference for money may arise because of
(a) uncertainty of cash flows,
(b) subjective preference for consumption, and
(c) availability of investment opportunities.
The last reason is the most sensible justification for the time value of money.

Risk Premium: - Interest rate demanded, over and above the risk-free rate as compensation for time, to account for the uncertainty of cash flows.

Interest Rate or Time Preference Rate: - Rate which gives money its value, and facilitates the comparison of cash flows occurring at different time periods.

Required Interest Rate: - A risk-premium rate is added to the risk- free time preference rate to derive required interest rate from risky investments.

Compounding: - It means calculating future values of cash flows at a given interest rate at the end of a given period of time.

Future Value (F) of a Lump Sum: -  Today (P) for periods at rate of interest is given by the following formula:
The compound value factor, CVFn ,i can be found out from Table A given at the end of the book.

Future Value of an Annuity: - that is, the same amount of cash each year for periods at rate of interest is given by the following equation

The compound value of an annuity factor (CVAFn,i) can be found out from Table B given in Annexure at the end of the book.

Sinking Fund: -  An annuity to be deposited for periods at rate of interest to accumulate to a given sum. The following equation can be used:

Sinking Fund factor (SFFn, i) is a reciprocal of CVAFn, i.

Discounting: - It means calculating the present value of cash flows at a given interest rate at the beginning of a given period of time.

 Present Value (P) of a Lump Sum (F): - It occured at the end of period at rate of interest is given by the following equation:
The present value factor (PVFn, i) can be obtained from Table C given in Annexure at the end of the book.

Present Value of an Annuity (A) occurring for periods at rate of interest can be found out as follows:

Table can be used to find out the present value of annuity factor (PVAFn, i).

Capital Recovery: - It determined annual cash flows to be earned to recover a given investment. The following equation can be used:

Notice that the capital recovery factor (CRFn,i) is a reciprocal of the present value
annuity factor, PVAFn, i.

Wealth or Net Present Value: - It is defined as the difference between the present value of cash inflows (benefits) and the present value of cash outflows (costs). Wealth maximisation principle uses interest rate to find out the present value of benefits and costs, and as such, it considers their timing and risk. The following formula can be used to calculate NPV or wealth of any pattern of cash

Multi-period Compounding:  When interest compounds for more than once in a given period of time, it is called multi-period compounding. If is the nominal interest rate for a period, the effective interest rate (EIR) will be more than the nominal rate in multi-period compounding since interest on interest within a
year will also be earned, EIR is given as follows:
where is the number of compounding in a year and is number of years.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR):  IRR is the rate, which equates the present value of cash flows to the initial investment. Thus in operational terms, in the present value equation, all variables are known except rcan be found out by trial and error method: